Use of science to guide city planning policy and practice
The primary recommendation of this paper is for cities to actively pursue compact and mixed-use urban designs that encourage a transport modal shift away from private motor vehicles towards walking, cycling, and public transport.
James Sallis,1 Fiona Bull,2 Ricky Burdett,3 Lawrence Frank,4 Peter Griffiths,3 Billie Giles-Corti,5 Mark Stevenson5
The Lancet, Vol. 388, Issue 10062
Land-use and transport policies contribute to worldwide epidemics of injuries and non-communicable diseases through traffic exposure, noise, air pollution, social isolation, low physical activity, and sedentary behaviours. Motorised transport is a major cause of the greenhouse gas emissions that are threatening human health. Urban and transport planning and urban design policies in many cities do not reflect the accumulating evidence that, if policies would take health effects into account, they could benefit a wide range of common health problems. Enhanced research translation to increase the influence of health research on urban and transport planning decisions could address many global health problems. This paper illustrates the potential for such change by presenting conceptual models and case studies of research translation applied to urban and transport planning and urban design. The primary recommendation of this paper is for cities to actively pursue compact and mixed-use urban designs that encourage a transport modal shift away from private motor vehicles towards walking, cycling, and public transport. This Series concludes by urging a systematic approach to city design to enhance health and sustainability through active transport and a move towards new urban mobility. Such an approach promises to be a powerful strategy for improvements in population health on a permanent basis.
1University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; 2University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia; 3London School of Economics, London, UK; 4University of British Columbia, British Columbia, Canada; 5University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia
Sallis, J. F., Bull, F., Burdett, R., Frank, L. D., Griffiths, P., Giles-Corti, B., & Stevenson, M. (2016). Use of science to guide city planning policy and practice: how to achieve healthy and sustainable future cities. The Lancet, 388(10062), 2936-2947. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30068-X